The answers of the National Science Quiz 2019

The National Science Quiz 2019 turned into won by way of Nadine Akkerman (Leiden University) and Casper Albers (University of Groningen). We already posted 10 questions prior to the live recording, and 7 extra were added on the night itself. Below you will locate the solutions to all questions from the NWQ 2019.

1. A contemporary sailboat is going faster while this “wide wind” sails than while it sails “before the wind”. What is the most crucial purpose for this?

A. If the boat sails at this attitude with recognize to the wind, the sails will like a wing and that provides more strength.
B. By crusing a massive wind, the boat will tilt, decreasing the resistance of the boat within the water.
C. If the boat sails in the front of the wind, the floor of the sail is the largest, but the total floor of the boat that catches wind is narrower.

Watch the stay recording of the National Science Quiz 2019 here!

The correct answer is A.

The wind is of route the cause why a sailboat moves forward. Whether it’s sails for the wind or big wind. As a sailboat moves on, the sky pushes the sail straight from behind. Because the boat is moving forward, the sail also pushes air particles to the facet at the front, which has a particularly braking impact. In a race for the wind those forces are matched but the boat is making excellent progress.

However, as soon as the sailboat sails at an oblique angle to the wind, the following happens: the air’s braking impact decreases (the surface of the sail that is perpendicular to the course or journey is narrower) and a pressure is created Bee.

A sailboat’s sail isn’t always immediately, but is filled with most courses. That shape is very similar to an airplane wing on its aspect, and the convex front offers the sail a further characteristic.

When the air flows alongside the sail because of the boat’s very own movement (additionally referred to as the ‘obvious wind’), it has to tour a longer route on the front of the sail than at the rear, causing it to flow quicker on the front and “thins.” And when that happens, an underpressure is created at the front of the sail, relative to the rear. The underpressure sucks the boat inside the course of the underpressure, giving the boat a further pressure to the front. With generous wind – for maximum boats – the mixture of wing movement and wind that blows directly into the sail is the maximum effective.

Connoisseurs will recognize this precept as Bernoulli’s law, and is the reason why an aircraft wing receives lift. It consequently also explains why a sailboat is going extra fast at an perspective to the wind.

2. A researcher is interpreting an old script and revealing a character set for the name or a well-known king from that time. She jumps a hollow inside the air. What makes recognizing the name of a king so precious to the researcher?

A. The investigator can date the textual content with the name of the king. In this way she will deduce the development phase of the language.
B. Because names are in large part language independent, she will be able to examine this script with the script or different languages ​​from the identical period.
C. There is mostly a number inside the call or heirs to the throne, as a result or which the language script can be connected to the famous calculation script.

The correct solution is B.

Whether you are saying Venice, Venice or Venice, all of us will realize which you are talking about that almost sunken traveler appeal in Italy. This additionally applies to many pharaohs, kings and empresses. These names have often been used outside the relevant “empire” and therefore remained largely language independent.

When interpreting a script, it’s far first or all important to discover what kind of script it’s far. Is it a sound script, which include the alphabet that we use, where is every letter stands for a sound, or is it a that means script, such as the Chinese character script Hanzi?

For a long time it was assumed that hieroglyphs have a script, until it has been found that signs and symptoms are within a positive figure – a cartouche – stood for the name of a king. By evaluating the spelling of these names, it has changed into discovered that it has become a legitimate script.

A natural improvement in writing does no longer appear to exist for the time, several paths lead to a usable writing. There is also no clear coherence or script used for letters or numbers. Moreover, there are also uncoded scripts, as an instance of the Rongorongo that was used on Easter Island.

The Rongorongo – Image: Wikimedia Commons, Unknown Author (CC BY-SA 3.0)

3. You realize of someone that he has children, and that he knows of both children the day they were born. You ask, “Is it true which you have a daughter born on Saturday?” “Yes,” he replies. What is the chance that this individual has two daughters?

A. Less than 0.5
B. Exactly 0.5
C. Greater than 0.5

The correct solution is A.

Two kids, who can every be born on seven days, and may be born as a boy or a lady. That is a total of 196 viable combinations. But as quickly as you understand that at least one in all the kids is a lady born on Saturday, plenty of alternatives are dropped. You just don’t know if it is the primary or second toddler.

If we kind the ones alternatives again, we are able to divide them into 5 groups. Namely:

instances where the primary-born is a daughter born on Saturday, and the second one baby is a son.
cases where the second child is a daughter born on Saturday, and the primary toddler is a son.
cases where the firstborn is a daughter born on Saturday, and the second infant is a daughter.
cases where the second one infant is a daughter born on Saturday and the primary baby is a daughter.
1 case wherein both kids are daughters born on Saturday.
The solution is 13/27 (so just below 1/2 a).

This is a so-called “poorly defined” hassle. The way to the trouble depends on the data furnished by the father.

4. Natural gas has no smell of its own, it has been delivered so that you can scent it within the occasion of a gasoline leak. What is so unique approximately this gas smell?

A. It is a universally deterrent smell.
B. It turns on our reptile brain.
C. It also can be discovered at very low concentrations.

The accurate answer is C.

The scent this is delivered to natural gas is the so-known as ethane ethiol. These thiols are the compounds that encompass the strong scent of garlic
so fragrant. You scent it well, but it is not absolutely scary. A universally horrifying odor does now not exist.

No, the special factor about the fragrance is that it can be located at very low concentrations. Which approach that you may also scent it in a small gasoline leak. People with reduced experience of smell can also odor it often. How tons do you need to observe: take this comparison. Three drops in an Olympic swimming pool are enough.

5. Why did herbal regulation – the concept that there are legal principles that apply everywhere and in any respect times – suddenly become famous in the Republic of the Seven Netherlands?

A. This younger state became secular and wished an alternative to the regulation stimulated by means of faith.
B. A justification changed into needed for the aggressive commercial policy of the Republic, which become able to claim the regulation of the strongest by way of force.
C. The Republic had good trade relations with England and for this reason connected to the legal gadget there.

The accurate answer is B.

It is a popular false impression that the Republic of the United Seven United Netherlands was secular. You would suppose so. After all, Amsterdam was an extraordinary exception for a long time because the heart of the town changed into now not the church tower however the Palace on Dam Square – formerly the Town Hall. Yet the States General did indeed take on the venture of defining and protective the “public” church of the Republic, specifically the Reformed Church. During the Republic most effective Reformed human beings have been allowed to hold a public worship. All other services had been most effective tolerated, in most cases in hiding churches.

No, the popularity of natural law became in particular motivated by way of the aggressive change coverage of De Republiek. Legal principles had been wanted that carried out at sea and in countries a ways beyond the borders of the Republic. Natural regulation become visible as universally applicable law because it become based on reason.

One of the greatest champions of herbal law was Hugo de Groot – that of the bookcase. De Groot concept that a completely logically derivable right, motivated by means of human reason, could regulate the mutual relations among states and offer some safety for citizens. Eventually his work became the premise for the Geneva conventions and the International Criminal Court.

6. For what did makers of traditional sparkling wine (South African champagne) use salt within the past?

A. To increase the low-salt Cape soil.
B. To get the yeast and sugar out of the bottle.
C. To dry the grapes so that they grow to be sweeter.

The correct answer is B.

You make sparkling wine with the aid of adding sugar and yeast to wine. The yeast eats the sugar and turns it into CO2: bubbles. The useless yeast and unused sugar remain in the bottle. But still, glowing wine is obvious and now not cloudy, as with beers which might be fermented within the bottle.

But how do you get the ones remnants out of the bottle, with out being completely sprayed, within the 19th century?

This is achieved by way of freezing the bottle neck. The bottle will grasp the wrong way up for a long time so that the yeast will lie on the (crown) cork, then the neck may be frozen and you can open the bottle and gently scoop out the yeast.

But how do you freeze a bottle of champagne? That is very tough with everyday ice due to the fact it’s far really no longer cold enough. Until you add salt to melting ice!

If you sprinkle an excess of salt on melting ice, then this turns into a special mixture. The mixture brings itself to a lower temperature and that is truely quite counter-intuitive, mainly if the gap around it is warmer than each the ice and the salt. It does no longer melt, however appears to freeze. This is because that is a cold-making mixture due to the fact, you guessed it, it makes things cold.

How does it work?
1. If salt dissolves in water, an unbalanced machine is created.
2. On the manner to balance, water melts and salt dissolves in the water. That dissolution takes electricity and it has to come back from somewhere, so the mixture cools down.
3. The temperature now drops to the eutectetic minimum, -21 degrees Celsius.

That is sufficient for a fast “freeze”. This approach of disgorgement is still used by purists.

7. The sun rises inside the east and sets within the west, maximum human beings know that. But what time is the solar in De Bilt on June 21 inside the southeast of heaven?

A. Around ten to twelve
B. Around nine o’clock
C. Around 1 / 4 to eleven

The accurate solution is A

Ten to twelve! Strange honestly: the solar revolves across the earth, and constantly hangs directly above this point. If it’s miles in the south at 12 o’clock, you would anticipate it to be within the southeast 3 hours earlier, at nine o’clock.

But: on June 21 daylight saving time applies, so the clock is set one hour ahead. So at its highest point the solar is most effective at 1 o’clock. And that still applies most effective within the center of our time zone, for example in Prague. The Netherlands is a lot greater to the west, so the highlight is round 40 minutes later, at 1:00 PM.

The question changed into alsowhilst is the sun within the south * east *? Three hours earlier? Well, the Netherlands is 52 ranges north latitude, and in addition, the earth’s axis is likewise tilted by way of 23 tiers. As a result, it takes any other 1 hour and 10 mins for the sun to reach the southeast within the Netherlands on June 21: ten mins earlier than noon.

8. You show Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump the above three planes and also you ask which of the two decrease squares maximum carefully fits the upper square. Who gives the suitable answer faster, and why?

A. Vladimir, due to the fact he is younger.
B. Donald, because he is an American.
C. Vladimir, because he speaks Russian.

The correct answer is C.

The language that a person speaks affects the perception of the world round them. This is an old concept that become already cautioned by way of Wilhelm von Humboldt however later have become acknowledged as: linguistic relativity.

The quality factor is that this idea has additionally been tested, with two groups: Russian audio system and English audio system. Unlike English, Russian has distinct phrases for mild blue and dark blue:

goluboy and siniy – mild blue and dark blue

Russian audio system should give an appropriate answer greater speedy which areas corresponded the maximum. Proof that the language you communicate affects how you perceive the arena.

9. Why is it that until the sixteenth century in Europe it changed into assumed that the human lower jaw consisted of two separate bones?

A. The Bible describes the bones of the human body, including two jaw bones.
B. Because it was forbidden to dissect human remains. The anatomical knowledge turned into therefore based on animals.
C. The only expertise approximately the skeleton of man came from priests who shed the corpses of the French nobility. Members of that line had two jaw bones because of a mutation.

The correct solution is B.

For a long time it was a massive taboo to dissect the bodies of the deceased, they had to be left alone. The to be had information approximately the skeleton came from animal research. Until the sixteenth century, Galen was by means of some distance the maximum famous anatomist, and he dissected, among different dogs.

Now in the beginning glance you’ll say that the decrease jaw of the canine also consists of a part. But it isn’t entirely ordinary that Galenus notion this. For many mammals, the lower jaw develops from parts that grow together, and that is also visible as a small line in the skeleton: the mandibular symphysis.

Galenus mainly looked at dog‘s jaws, consistent with the writings, and that they have a reasonably clean symphysis. What is striking is that the lower jaw of monkeys, which, just like humans, consist of a part, could not persuade Galen.

The first to dissect the human jaw after millennia of taboo changed into the Fleming Andries van den Wezel, better known as Vesalius. He may want to come to no other conclusion than that the adult human jaw consisted of one bone. A pleasant extra fact: while a human is born, it has round 300 bones, adults have 206.

10. Four prisoners stand behind every different in a row. The shield has 4 crimson and three blue hats and the prisoners understand that. From the returned to the the front, the guard places successively a pink, a blue, a purple and a blue cap on the prisoners’ heads. Each prisoner can only see the hats of the prisoners in the front of him.

Every prisoner may also bet once consistent with his personal color: the back one within the
drive first, then the only earlier than him, and so on. They can hear each different. You don’t need to bet: a prisoner can also pass. All prisoners are released if as a minimum one person guesses their own color successfully and no one is wrong.

Can the prisoners be launched with certainty?

A. No, the risk of release is at most fifty percent.
B. Yes, the primary ought to fit, but the 1/3 can report his hat shade with certainty.
C. Yes, the first three should fit, however the fourth can report his hat shade with certainty.

The correct answer is B.

The first prisoner (on the give up of the row) sees two blue hats and a crimson hat. He can’t make out his own coloration from that, so he fits. All other prisoners understand that it’s far impossible that prisoners 2, three and four are all blue-hipped. For the second one prisoner, who sees a crimson and a blue cap, that is no longer sufficient records to realize his personal coloration, so he also fits.

The 1/3 prisoner sees a blue hat and reasons as follows. “Suppose I even have blue. Then the second can’t also have blue, because then the primary would no longer have matched. So then the second has pink. But then he would have stated that. “However, the second has passed, from which the third can finish that his assumption that he himself is blue-tempered is incorrect. The third man or woman can consequently say with complete conviction that his own hat color is red.

The following questions had been asked at some stage in the stay recording in De Balie

Jupiter and his 4 biggest moons (Ganymedes, Callisto, Io and Europe) – Source: NASA / JPL (CC0)
11. The Italian Galileo Galilei is referred to as the only who first observed that four moons orbit the planet Jupiter. Around the equal time the German Simon Marius also made the same discovery, however he did no longer gain much repute with it. How is it that Galileo Galilei is referred to as the primary to take a look at the moons around the planet Jupiter, and Simon Marius remained an unknown astronomer?

A. Marius made the identical discovery, however he changed into mistaken about the planet. He idea Saturn had 4 moons.
B. Galileo labored with the Julian calendar, Marius with the Gregorian. It is ten days ahead, making it seem like Marius become later.
C. Simon Marius later posted his discovery and Galileo sooner or later accused him of plagiarism, which added him into disrepute for centuries.

The correct solution is C.

Poor Simon Marius, if only he lived in Italy and had made higher notes. If only he had had his discovery printed in advance and if best he have been a Catholic.

Marius stated he made his discovery in December 1609, however did not put his notes on paper until 8 January 1610 and did no longer even put up his findings till 1614. At that time, Galileo had long and widely published at the discovery about which he wrote notes on 7 January 1610. Made.

The gents made the equal discovery almost at the identical time. They have been both some of the first to have the concept of ​​aiming the telescope – a recent invention – on the sky. But Galileo posted in advance.

It caused a warfare that took spicy forms in which Galileo even used the names “toxic reptile” and an “enemy of humanity” for Marius. Marius became on his deathbed at that time, which also failed to help inside the defense.

The calendar did play a role: the Protestant area in which Marius lived still used the old Julian calendar, Galileo accused the “blasphemous” Protestant Marius of having “misused” the Catholic Gregorian calendar to make his discovery appear in advance. Marius’ popularity became perverted for good. Between 1903 and 1907 a Dutch commission discussed the dispute among Galileo and Marius, who concluded that every one the allegations of Galileo were unjustified. But it couldn’t shop Marius’ recognition.

12. How did Emmental cheese begin to comprise fewer and fewer holes in the 21st century?

A. The cheeses are made in lower areas.
B. Nowadays milk is stored for longer in a chilly place.
C. The production system has turn out to be more sterile.

The accurate answer is C.

Quite an awesome question actually, in which do the holes within the cheese come from?

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